NUTRITION

I. Nutrients

A. Definition

B. Classes - There are 6 classes of nutrients

1. Water

a. Functions of water

b. Losses of water from body

c. Requirement

2. Carbohydrates

a. General formula

b. Subclasses

1) Soluble CHO - NFE

2) Insoluble CHO - Crude fiber

..........


1) Soluble CHO (NFE) made up of 3 groups

a) monosaccharides

b) disaccharides

c) polysaccharides

2) Insoluble CHO (Crude Fiber) also consists primarily of 3 materials

a) cellulose

b) hemi-cellulose

c) lignin (NOT A CARBOHYDRATE but determined as part of crude fiber.


c. Function of CHO

3. Fats (lipids)

a) General definition

1) solubility

2) chemical contents

b) Triglycerides

1) glycerol

2) fatty acids

3) esters of fatty acids and glycerol

 

a) long chain vs. short chain

b) saturated vs. unsaturated

c) Primary functions of fats

1)

2)

4. Proteins

a. Definitions

1) Elemental composition

2) Molecular weight

3) Component units - Amino Acids

4) Analysis - Crude Protein

b. Essential amino acids

c. Protein Quality

d. Non-protein nitrogen (NPN)

e. Function of protein in the diet

5. Vitamins

a. Definition

b. Elemental composition

c. 2 groups based on solubility

1) Fat soluble group

2) Water soluble group

d. Vitamin A

e. Vitamin D

f. Vitamin E

g. Vitamin K

h. B Vitamins

i Vitamin C

6. Minerals

a. 2 groups of essential minerals

1) Macroelements Ca, P, Mg, Na, Cl, K, S 2) Micro-elements or trace elements Mn, Fe, Cu, I, Zn, Co, Mo, Se, F, Cr

b. Toxic elements

1) essential but highly toxic

2) non-essential toxic

c. Functions of minerals

1) general a)

b)

c)

2) Ca & P

3) Mg

4) Na, K, Cl

5) S

6) Mn

7) Fe

8) Cu

9) I

10) Zn

11) Co

12) Se

13) Mo

14) F

 

15) Cr

C. Non-nutrient feed additives

II. Digestion

A. Definition of digestion and absorption

B. Mouth

1.

2.

3.

4.

C. Esophagus

1. Birds--Crop

2. Functions

a.

b.

D. Stomach

1. complexity varies

2. Functions

a.

b.

3. Non-ruminant

a. 3 regions

b. Poultry stomach = Proventriculus

c. Gastric Secretions

1) HCl and its role

2) Gastric enzymes

a) Pepsin

b) Lipase

c) Rennin

3) Mucin

4. Ruminant stomach

a. 4 compartments

1)

2)

3)

4)

 

b. Rumen fermentation & microbiology Bacteria do 3 things

1)

2)

3)

 

Fermentation products


To Summarize Results of Rumen Action

CHO -

Proteins -

Fats -

B Vitamins -

Fat Soluble Vitamins -

Minerals


d. Omasum

e. Abomasum - ______________ _______________

 

E. Small Intestine

1. Areas

a.

b.

c.

2. Digestive juices

a. Bile

1) Where produced & stored

2) Role of bile

b. Pancreatic juice

Exocrine secretions 1) Sodium carbonate and bicarbonate

2) Enzymes

Endocrine secretions

c. Secretions from small intestine wall


To Summarize Digestion
 
Monogastric Ruminant
Carbohydrate -

Proteins -

Fats -

Water and Minerals -


3. Absorption

F. Large Intestine

1. Areas

2. Main function

3. Function in horse and rabbit

III. Metabolism

A. Definition

B. Carbohydrates

C. Fats

D. Proteins

E. Vitamins & Minerals

F. Energy storage

IV. Animal Feeds - 2 categories

A.

B.


A. Concentrates

Protein supplements

B. Roughages

1.

2.

3.