THE INDIANA STATE DAIRY ASSOCIATION
THE FIRST 100 YEARS
1, 2

J.L. Albright, W.M. Dillon, and R.E. Jones3
Purdue University, West LaFayette, Indiana 47907

The dairy industry of Indiana did not receive much recognition or attention in the state until 1877 when a state dairy association was founded. The first meeting to organize the Indiana Dairymen's Association was in Indianapolis at the old state fairgrounds on September 26, 1877.

Mr. Asher Kellum of Friendswood, Hendricks County, Indiana, was made President; W.H. Broaddus, Connersville, Vice-President; James Stevenson, Indianapolis, Secretary; and J.P. Kingsbury, Indianapolis, Treasurer.

This organization held annual meetings and was in existence for approximately three years, the last meeting being held in January 1880. The annual reports of this association were published in brief form in the State Board of Agriculture reports of 1877, '78, and '79.

Ten years later, in 1890, Professor Charles S. Plumb, a New Englander, came to Purdue University as Professor of Animal Industry and Dairying. Interest in improvement in Indiana dairy conditions, methods, and practices began when in January 1891, he (and six others)4 published a letter -- "A call to organize" -- to all dairymen of Indiana. This meeting was held on January 15, 1891, at Indianapolis, with 16 men and 4 women as charter members5 of this organization.

It is interesting to note that the group was originally proposed to be called the Indiana State Dairymen's Association (ISDA). The minutes of the 1892 and following meetings refer to the organization as "The Indiana State Dairy Association." A committee was appointed to draft a constitution and by-laws with nine "Articles of Association"6 which were amended December 3, 1983, to include a name change to "The Indiana State Dairy Association." In 1892, two honorary members were added: one, an Indiana Senator J.A. Mount who became Governor in 1896 and the other (W.R. Hostetter), Mt. Carrol, Illinois.

Since 1891, The Indiana State Dairy Association has held annual meetings and has published annual reports. The association has been an important factor in building up the dairy industry of the state by encouraging quality dairy products and better methods on the farm and by advocating appropriate dairy laws.

In C.S. Plumb's 3rd Presidential Address ("Some Dairy Problems"), he mentioned the appointment of dairy cattle judges at the Indiana State Fair had not always given general satisfaction previous to 1891. Men were appointed who were familiar with beef, and not dairy cattle. In 1891 at the request of this Association, the dairy cattle at the state fair were judged by men recommended by this association to the Board  of Agriculture. By 1892, a dairy cattle superintendent, a dairy building, and department were in existence at the Indiana State Fair.

From the start, the 1st Annual Report contained many speeches, and opinions on matters of the day.7 Advertisers included Chr. Hansen's Laboratory- The DeLaval Separator Co., D.H. Roe Co. (Babcock Test), Crystal Creamery Co., Lansing, Michigan, ("A Child Can Skim Milk"), The Jersey Bulletin (Indianapolis, Indiana) "Published entirely in the interest of Jersey Cattle and honest dairying--A supporter of the churn--.pure unadulterated butter and honest cheese--no frauds"--send for sample copy and Hoard's Dairyman (No paper in the world discusses as clearly and thoroughly the breeding, handling, and feeding of dairy cattle; the growing of feed essential to the dairy cow; the silo and its management; the making and marketing of butter by the private dairyman; the relations of the patron to the cheese factory and creamery. Hoard's Dairyman has published more information relative to the Babcock Test than all other journals combined. It will keep to the front in the future. Price $1.00, published weekly. Send for sample copy. Subscribe for the paper that will reach your practical necessities. Its editors are practical men in the business."

The first twelve Annual Reports (thanks to stenographic notes) give testimony to the leadership and vision of founding father C.S. Plumb. Through his  Presidential Address, speeches, remarks, and attendance until 19028, he addressed the following areas:

The first three Annual Reports were edited by Mrs. Laura D. Worley, skilled dairywoman and buttermaker, who then resigned. To this date no other female has held office. A listing of officers of the Indiana State Dairy Association from 1891-1940 is available in the 50th Annual Report. The past 50 years have been updated and is a part of this report.

It is not clear when the presidency of ISDA shifted from academic-creamery personnel to self-government by dairy farmers. But once it occurred, it appears to have remained so.

The first three annual meetings were in Indianapolis and then yearly gatherings were held throughout the State of Indiana until Professor Plumb invited them to come to Purdue University in 1903. ISDA members must have enjoyed this three-day meeting with Purdue President W.E.

Stone's remarks, music by the Purdue University Mandolin Club, 15 talks including "Dairying for the Farmer's Daughter" by Miss Edith Parsons, Purdue Winter Course Student (1900), Purdue Glee Club, violin solo, another violin solo, Purdue University Band, more music by the Purdue University Mandolin Club, scores of butter and cheese read, and discussion of the amended National Oleomargarine Laws.9

The Annual Meetings with annual breed meetings remained essentially at Purdue for 61 years. Finally, in 1970, ISDA hit the road again to bolster falling attendance by going to the Miami County Fairgrounds north of Peru, Indiana. A record of meeting sites and dates can be found in an accompanying table. Since 1970, for the most part, ISDA has focused on its birthplace, Indianapolis, then Peru, Kokomo, Marion, and West LaFayette.

The format for meetings for many years was educational. The inspiration, planning, and obtaining a veritable "who's who in dairying" speaker list, year in and year out, fell on E.A. (Ed) Gannon, Secretary-Treasurer of ISDA for 41 years. Professor Plumb was the visionary and provided the blueprint, but Ed Gannon was the glue that kept the organization together.

This history would not be complete if the name, Norbert J. Moeller, were not mentioned. He followed Ed Gannon and served Indiana dairy farmers, their children and cows, faithfully and well for 25 years (1963-1978). So between Ed and Norb, they did two-thirds of the work and Annual Reports.

At the 73rd Annual Meeting, President Melvin Young presented Ed Gannon with a suitable gift from the Association and a scroll of recognition for his faithful and untiring service as follows:

The Indiana State Dairy Association
pays its greatest tribute to
ED GANNON
41 years its Secretary Treasurer
A Dairy Extension Man who refused to grow old
because he kept his eyes always on the job ahead,
mixing his own great courage with the strength of
young dairymen who rallied to his battlecry:

Get good before you get big.

Melvin Young
President
December 1962

The Indiana State Dairy Association has been the voice of Indiana dairymen since 1891. Activities have included the following (as of 1965):

1. The Association has representation on the following state boards:

  1. Creamery License Board
  2. State Board of Health
  3. Indiana Livestock Sanitary Board
  4. U.S. Livestock Sanitary Board
  5. American Dairy Association of Indiana
  6. Indiana Marketing Council
  7. Advisory Committee, Dairy Exhibits, Indiana State Fair

2. Promotion of 4-H Dairy Calf Club work by

  1. Furnishing awards for top 4-H Dairy Judging team and high individual at State Contests
  2. Furnishing awards for 4-H Grade A milk production contest at the State Fair
  3. Sponsor trip to National 4-H Dairy Conference
  4. Youth committee to assist in planned state 4-H dairy activities

3. Promotion of production testing by sponsoring herd and sire awards
4. Secure DHIA supplies for DHIA cooperators
5. Agent for collection of Data Processing Center charges (Processing of monthly DHIA records)
6. A committee to assist in planning production testing programs
7. Conducts a Judging School for Dairy Judges (prepares approved dairy judges list sent to all county extension offices).
8. Helped secure the milkhouse at the State Fair Grounds and assists in operating the milkhouse at the State Fair
9. Distributes an annual report to members, DHIA supervisors, county agents, AI technicians, etc.
10. Helped secure passage of the Creamery License Law in 1914.

Professor Wilbur listed the above ten items in his history (see acknowledgements).

Since 1948, ISDA has sponsored an Indiana Dairyman of the Year Award. In 1981, the Award was changed to Dairy Family of the Year to recognize the largely unheralded, unrewarded input of wives, sons and daughters. Pictures are placed in the Dairy Portrait Gallery across from the Animal Sciences office on the third floor of the Lilly Hall of Life Sciences, Purdue University. These outstanding dairy people are:

In addition to Prof. Wilbur's list, we have attempted to highlight and emphasize the past three decades:

1967 -   Hired surprise testers to test qualifying DHIR herds.

Participated in Purebred Breed Meetings and field days and Milk Marketing Association Annual Meetings.

1968 - Sold the milk produced by exhibitors at the Indiana State Fair and paid all the producers for their milk.

Published a list of cows with lifetime production of more than 125,000 pounds of milk or 4,300 pounds of butterfat.

Presented and distributed 3,000 copies of "History of Dairying," written by Professor J.W. Wilbur, Purdue University.

1970 - Extension Dairyman Sam Gregory's leadership was instrumental in the reorganization of the Association to meet the needs of a State Dairy Herd Improvement testing program.

Cooperative record processing with Ohio was interrupted from June through September by a computing problem at Ohio State University.   

The Dairy Records Processing Center (DRPC) at Raleigh, NC, "picked up the pieces" and worked overtime to straighten out this mess.

Indiana joined the National DHIA.

1971 - On-March 15, 1971, the ISDA Board of Directors formalized their decision to become a full member of DRPC at Raleigh.

DRPC accepted Indiana at their Annual Meeting on April 1, 1971, and the first herd was processed at DRPC, Raleigh on April 21, 1971. In less than one month, all Indiana accounting and record files were merged into this system and we became full members of this cooperative center. Also, an ISDA representative, a dairy farmer, was chosen to serve on DRPC's Dairyman's Advisory Board.

Surprise test expanded to all official record cooperators.

1972 Basic Production and Management Record accounted for a 10% increase in herds and cows on test.

A program to monitor the accuracy of the field Babcock testing was initiated. The results of 24 milk samples from each tester were compared with the values obtained at the Central Testing Laboratory at Purdue.

1973 - Recognition of the top three supervisors with $100 bonds.

1974 - DRPC agreed to work with ISDA on a pilot payroll program for all supervisors.

1975 - On January 1, 1975, the Central Accounting Payroll program started with Elkhart DHIA and G-O-M-M DHIA.

2000 pound Improvement Award initiated at the suggestion of long-time supervisor John Henry.

Assisted with Dairy Princess Contest at the Indiana State Fair.

The current record for maximum test day milk production is 195.5 pounds of milk (Beecher Arlinda Ellen, Rochester, IN). As of this writing (March 31, 1990), Ellen is still the World's Record Milk Producer.

1976  - On January 1, 1976, a Business Analysis Program (all financial records) was developed with the DRPC at Raleigh.

Recognition of the Top Dozen Supervisors that had 4.5 or less days delay and less than .75 percent error for the year.

Tested milk samples for Allen, G-0-M-M, and Grant County DHIA's in the Central Milk Testing Lab located at West Lafayette. Started goat testing rings and presented three herd awards.

1977 - Collected all necessary fees to support the local DHIA's and employ about 80 supervisors and four lab and office workers.

Central Milk Testing Lab expanded to test eight DHIA's and all surprise test samples.

1978 - Central Milk Testing Lab expanded to test 17 DHIA's and started testing 4,000 Somatic Cell Count samples. Currently about one-third of the samples are tested in this lab. ISDA now serves on Advisory Committee for the Purdue Animal Disease and Diagnostic Laboratory.

1979 - Purchase of MultiSpec for fat and protein testing at 300 samples per hour. The automatic Coulter Counter measures somatic cell count (a measure of subclinical mastitis) at 200 samples per hour.

1980 - Central Milk Testing Lab equipment was purchased with funds generated by herds on test. Direct Access to Records by Telephone started with three pilot herds, two in LaPorte DHIA and the Purdue Dairy Center.

1981 - January 12, 1981 milk protein test for all herds began in the Central Milk Testing Lab.

ISDA represented on Commission of Farm Animal Care, Inc.

Norbert J. Moeller received an award for more than 30 years of dedicated service to the Indiana 4-H and FFA educational program. Norb Moeller was ISDA Secretary-Treasurer from 1963 through 1978.

September 1, 1981, R.E. (Bob) Jones was hired as Service Coordinator to manage the affairs of the Indiana State Dairy Association. For the year ending December 31, 1981, ISDA had revenues of more than one million dollars for the first time.

1982 -  Furnished ribbons for the Purdue Dairy Club Spring Show.

Central Milk Testing Lab teleprocessed results to DRPC at Raleigh for 65% of the cows on test. After a lapse since World War II, advertisements were accepted again to help defray the cost of ISDA Annual Report.

1983 - All samples are tested in the Central Lab and results are teleprocessed to the DRPC at Raleigh.

First Dairy Cow of the Year Award was presented at the Indiana Livestock Breeders luncheon to Prince Hugo Lottie, a registered Guernsey owned by Truman and Elnora Weaver, Goshen. Distinguished Service Awards were presented to the following:

Sylvan and Lucy Habegger of Berne, Indiana, for 15 years as supervisors; Carl Johanningsmeier for 11 years of service on the Board of Directors of ISDA; and Will Dillon for over 20 years of service to Indiana dairymen.

Eugene Meyer, Managing Editor, Hoard's Dairymen, addressed the 93rd Annual Meeting on "Dairying As It Looks From Here."

1984 - NDHIA starts Quality Certification program for all state DHIA's with Indiana passing with flying colors.

PCDART program started to expand service to larger herds. Bob Jones reported that the first full year 620,184 butterfat and protein; 189,142 Somatic Cell Count samples were tested and teleprocessed with a 98% match rate.

1985 - After bringing the group up to date on total mixed rations, Dr. Donald L. Hill was presented a Distinguished Service Award from ISDA in recognition of 35 years of service to Indiana dairy families. A Distinguished Service Award was also presented to Vern Bachtel, a retiring supervisor with over 27 years of service.

Nearly 95% of DHI herds report at least one AI sire in use and at least one AI daughter in the herd. About 30% of the herds bred all cows AI.

1986 - Bob Jones reported that all meters and 5% of the weigh jars were checked in Indiana and calibrated or repaired as necessary.

Ernie Carnegie testing 15,036 cows had an error rate of only .04.  Jo Kirkham testing 12,552 cows had an error rate of only .06.

ISDA has cooperated with several other state DHIA's to run a meter van which periodically tours Indiana to check, calibrate, and repair all meters.

1987 - Ronald Cooper, ELANCO Products Division, Indianapolis, spoke on "Bovine Somatatropin" and stated that it would probably be 1990 before the product could be marketed.

ISDA Directors appropriated $2,000 to Dr. Rod Allrich, Purdue, to develop reproductive physiology idea sheets with ISDA to receive 1,000 copies for free distribution to all members.

Fieldperson position was filled by Steve Cole with extensive experience in the Wisconsin DHIA program. (He is now manager of Arizona DHIA).

ISDA offered forage testing service to all herds on test through a cooperative agreement with Wisconsin.

1988 - Total Program Entry system was developed to enable the supervisor to provide better records that handle time sensitive management data easily.

ISDA held their 98th Annual Meeting at the Adams Mark Hotel in Indianapolis on Monday, March 14, 1988. The meeting was held at this time to allow Indiana dairymen the opportunity to attend the 23rd National DHIA Meeting, Biotechnology Seminar and Trade Show.

A new retirement plan for supervisors was established.

Marilyn Penrod was the top supervisor for 1987. From Wabash Association with 7,692 cows, she had an error rate of .00.

On August 31, 1988, the new Purdue Dairy Research Center near Montmorenci was dedicated. ISDA was encouraged to support Purdue and to let its Administration know the needs of the dairy production industry in Indiana.

Moved ISDA Central Milk Testing Lab from Smith Hall to the basement of Lilly Hall of Life Sciences. Chris Rapp replaced Sue Friederich as Central Milk Testing Lab Manager.

1989 - Gold herd award winners attending the ISDA 99th Annual Meeting were Elnora and Eugene Freeman, Keith Painter (Has anyone earned more Gold Awards than the Keith Painter Family?), and Chris Johanningsmeier.

Ross and Mae Riggs were presented a plaque for outstanding Service to the Indiana State Dairy Association.

DeeAnn Hibschman replaced Steve Cole as fieldperson.

About 15% of the cows on test are participating in TPE from Elkhart, Huntington, Clinton-Carroll, Boone, Randolph, and Southeastern DHIA.

1990 - On March 31, 1990, the 100th Annual Meeting was held in Indianapolis (where the first Annual Meeting was held). Congratulations to all who have contributed to this history and to those who have made plans for the future!

Dr. David Putnam, Manager of Professional Services for Dairy Marketing Development for ELANCO Division of Eli Lilly Company gave a last minute update on Bovine Somatatropin.

Ewing Row, Managing Editor of Hoard's Dairyman, was the evening speaker ("What Is Ahead for Dairying in the Next Five Years?") at the 100th Annual Meeting at the Sheraton Northeast. Ewing Row is the son of Dr. and Mrs. P.Q. Row, Hammond, Indiana, (owners of Penn Oaks Farm, Registered Holsteins, Crown Point, Indiana). He earned his B.S. and M.S. in Animal Sciences from Purdue University.

To backtrack a bit, in the 1970's and 1980's, with the boom in electronic data processing through computers, the Annual Meeting programs were largely about new testing procedures and the Dairy Records Processing Center. Still, ISDA members never lost sight of their educational mission when they had Agricultural Economist J.B. Kohlmeyer speak on "Economics, Technology, and Politics." Dr. Donald L. Hill moderated a "Nutritional Management Update" as well as "Complete Feeds"; Dr. Tom Keenan (Purdue Borden Award winner for research and now at Virginia Tech) spoke on "Where Does Milk Come From?"; Eugene Meyer, Hoard's Dairyman, on "Dairying As It Looks From Here"; Ron Cooper spoke on "Bovine Somatatropin (BST)"; and there were tours of the new Central Lab in Smith Hall as well as the Purdue Dairy Center on Cherry Lane and later the new milk lab in the Life Sciences Building and the Purdue Dairy Research Center near Montmorenci, Indiana.

As the voice of the dairy farmer, The Indiana State Dairy Association has kept strong herd testing programs for milkfat, protein, somatic cell counts, and whatever else is needed. (In one of, if not the first articles on testing dairy cows in the 8th Annual Report, D.H. Jenkins, Editor of the Jersey Bulletin, used the definition and logic to define the.verb "test" as "to put to the proof." "You put your cows to the proof, and they are tested, whether they fail or succeed is attaining a given standard.")

The legislative area is another matter and handled nowadays largely by the Indiana Farm Bureau Inc. Additional activities include recognition of achievement in the form of:

In addition to those boards listed by Professor Wilbur, ISDA has representatives on the following:

  1. Advisory Committee for the Animal Disease and Diagnostic Lab
  2. Commission of Farm Animal Care, Inc.
  3. Indiana Livestock Breeders' Association
  4. Indiana State Fair Board--various breed shows
  5. DRPC Dairymen's Advisory Board

The business side of ISDA is supervising local DHIA'S; running central accounting, a well-managed Central Milk Testing Lab with 100% of the samples collected also processed there, and accurate records to enable Indiana to pass National DHIA Quality Certification inspection.

Personnel also participate in purebred meetings, field days, and (when invited) milk marketing annual meetings. They also have an annual judging conference, as Ed Gannon put it, "to meet the requirements of a state Purebred Dairy Cattle Association." Forage testing is available to all herds on test.

As the Indiana State Dairy Association members reflect on to the past 100 years, it might be well to consider some of the following (the next 100 years?):

1) What is important and what is redundant in terms of activities? (See 22 activities listed on page 19, of the 99th Annual Report) What isn't being done or should be done better? And at what cost?

2) What should be the relationship between ISDA and Purdue University beyond the close working relationship between the Service Coordinator, Extension Dairy Specialist and Central Milk Lab? Are ISDA/Purdue University meeting the challenges of the future?

The financial assistance of ISDA to the Extension Dairy Specialist which allows him to travel throughout Indiana is acknowledged and appreciated. Twenty years ago, there were four extension dairy specialists and now there is one. The same is happening in terms of research/teaching (Drs. V.F.Colenbrander and C.H. Noller will retire this year--will they be replaced? How will they be replaced? Remember Dr. Donald Hill? His position was never replaced. The list goes on).

3) Would it help to motivate further funding and work in dairy production and related research through a dairy check-off plan? (as developed in the States of Virginia, Ohio, Washington). With increasing pressure to find financial support for research and teaching, how can ISDA be of help?

4) Are advisory committees needed for dairy legislation? (What about bioengineering and robotic milking as well as biotechnology and bovine somatatropin? Do we wait on a ruling from Holland on robotic milking and Wisconsin on BST and elsewhere?) Long overdue, an interested Dairy Advisory Committee could meet with Purdue staff and administration relative to dairy work. Earlier in the 25th Annual Report, one can find how helpful ISDA was in asking the Board of Trustees of Purdue to furnish the Dairy Department needed farm land for the feeding and manure disposal of the dairy herd. It goes both ways. Later, Department Head W.R. Woods (1971-85) made annual pleas for lobbying help in the building of the new Animal Sciences Research Facilities. He also sought and received up to $500 annually during his span as Head of the Department of Animal Sciences for support of the Animal Sciences Workshop for Youth. In March 1986, recently arrived, new and present Department Head Dr. Bud G. Harmon spoke to ISDA, the first commodity group in Indiana that he addressed. He and Dr. Billy R. Baumgardt, Director of the Purdue Agricultural Experiment Station, are scheduled to speak here today on research at Purdue.

5) Revive the Presidential Address. The President of ISDA chairs the annual meeting and executive committee, but future continuing dairy leadership is needed.

From where will the next Professor C.S. Plumb come?

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

We acknowledge the thousands of Indiana dairy people mentioned in the Annual Reports, Volumes 1-99, of the Indiana State Dairy Association. We are indebted to the pioneers who lived this history and for leaving a trail of their accomplishments. In particular, Prof. J.W. (Jack) Wilbur's published history in the 77th Annual Report (1967) of the Indiana State Dairy Association serves as a detailed, scholarly effort.

Entitled, "History of Dairying in Indiana and at Purdue University," it starts with the Indiana Territory and its early French and English settlers with their cattle. It covers extensive ground, people and events; contributions from the Purdue Agricultural Experiment Station, Extension Division; milk quality; milk sanitation laws in Indiana; dairy cows and milk production; manufactured products; the creamery industry in Indiana; and ends with the Purdue Creamery (which closed its doors in 1968).

No attempt has been made to re-write or update Prof. Wilbur's work. Also, long-time Extension Dairy Specialist E.A. (Ed) Gannon covered in the 50th Annual Report (1940) the early days of the first society organized in 1877. He also summarized by years through 1939, the progress of the Indiana State Dairy Association. Ed also prepared a January 13, 1953, dated mimeo on the "History of Dairy Extension," which contains a wealth of information by someone who lived it. (A group of Indiana dairy manufacturer's provided the funds to hire the first dairy extension specialist in the state, November 8, 1912. They immediately set out to develop a foundation for Dairy Herd Improvement Association on a bimonthly basis. In April 1913, the first Indiana DHIA was organized in Lake County).

Another "History of Indiana Dairy Industry" (circa 1938) typed carbon paper report was studied; however, its author(s) were anonymous and remain a mystery. A similar report exists entitled, "History of Dairy Extension Work 1914-1939, Inclusive," and it, too, remains nameless.

It is easy to get side-tracked on such a history, but that is some of the fun and fascination of researching.

The 1957 National Convention of the Holstein-Friesian Association Annual Meeting program (102 pages) held in Indianapolis, Indiana, June 3-6, contains a wealth of historical data ("History and Development of the Indiana Dairy Industry" by Prof. H.W. Gregory, Chief of the Dairy Department, Purdue University; "4-H Holstein Calf Work in Indiana" by J.C. Ralston, Purdue University and "Official Testing in Indiana" by J.W. Wilbur, Superintendent of Official Testing, Purdue University. Articles and advertisements that would cause comment would be The University of Notre Dame and Earlham College Registered Holstein herds. They have since departed).

Also, 30 years later, the 102nd National Holstein Convention "Back Home Again in Indiana" was held in Indianapolis, June 21-25, 1987. (This time, many short features, pictures of outstanding dairy persons and their cows, plus a picture of Indiana University Coach Bobby Knight can be found in the 168 page program.)

A Brief History of Dairying In Indiana with Emphasis on "Firsts" in Registered Holsteins by J.L. Albright appeared in the 1975 section of Indiana Holsteins, published by the Holstein World. Also, L.E. Laney of the Michigan-Indiana Holstein prepared a special, 20th Anniversary Issue dedicated to the breed from 1946-1966. We thank them all.

Lastly, we appreciate and thank Mrs. Glynalee (Jones) Holdcraft for interpreting and typing this and other dairy-related work during her tenure as Secretary for the Indiana State Dairy Association and the Department of Animal Sciences. A former dairyman's daughter from Pine Village, Indiana, the Indiana dairy industry is the beneficiary of her strong work ethic.

DEDICATION

This paper is dedicated to the following pioneers and their descendants of the Indiana State Dairy Association--C.S. Plumb, Ed (deceased) and Mae Gannon (still alive and a lovely lady at 99 years of age on April 1, 1990) and Norb and Julia Moeller.

Endnotes

1100th Annual Meeting of the Indiana State Dairy Association, Inc., Sheraton Northeast, Indianapolis, IN, March 31, 1990.

2Journal Paper No._____  Purdue University Agricultural Experiment Station.

3The authors are Professor of Animal Sciences; Extension Dairy Specialist; and Service Coordinator, Indiana State Dairy Association, respectively.

4C.S. Plumb, Lafayette; D.H. Judkins, Indianapolis; W.H. Broaddus, Connersville; Mrs. A.L. Smith, Princeton; C.B. Harris, Goshen; Mrs. L.D. Worley, Ellettsville; and F.J. Claypool, Munroe. On a motion of Mr. Jenkins, Prof. Plumb was elected temporary chairman and Mrs. Worley, secretary, At the first meeting by acclamation, they were elevated to President and Secretary-Treasurer, respectively.

5Prof. C.S. Plumb; C.B. Harris; D.H. Jenkins; J.W.LaGrange; Mrs. Laura D. Worley; Charles Van Nuys; Mrs. Kate M. Busick; G.A. Stanton; Albert List; Sylvester Johnson; E.G. Howland; Mrs. George Jackson; W.H. Broaddus; Mrs. Calvin Fletcher; H.H. Wheatcraft; George W. Brooks, F.J. Christie; C.T. Doan; Mrs. A.L. Smith; and W.C. Wheatcraft. By the end of the first year an additional 12 names were added to the list.

6Article lst - The name of this Association shall be "The Indiana State Dairymen's Association

Article 2nd - The officers of this Association shall consist of a President, Secretary, Treasurer, and three Vice Presidents and an Executive Committee consisting of the President, Secretary, First Vice President, and two others elected by the Association

Article 3rd - The officers shall be elected to serve for one year or until their successors have been elected.

Article 4th - The regular annual meeting occur in January at the State Board of Agriculture Rooms at Indianapolis, Indiana

Article 5th - Any person can become a member of the Association by the payment of a fee of one dollar

Article 6th - The President shall have the power to call a special meeting at such time as in his judgement the interest of the Association demands

Article 7th - The Executive Board shall have full power to transact all unfinished business

Article 8th - The Treasurer shall be the custodian of all the funds belonging to the Institution and pay out the same on the order of the President

Article 9th - The officers of the Association shall perform such duties as usually devolve upon officers of similar organizations

Article 10th- These articles may be amended by a majority vote of the members of the Association present

7Dehorning was a bothersome, emotional subject. The discussion at the 1st Annual Meeting between Mrs. Kate M. Busick of Wabash, Indiana, is interesting and thoughtful today.

"Mrs. Busick. I agree with Mr. Harris on every point but one, and there I take decided issue with him. I would, if I had my way, prosecute every man who sawed the horns of his poor dumb animals. If the horns were destroyed while the animal was yet a calf, it would not be so bad, but take a full grown animal, and saw through the sensitive horn, is a shame, and a crime. Just think of it. To make them a little easier to handle, we take the appendages nature has given them. We must saw through the sensitive nerve centers. It is cruelty. In Scotland and England, laws have been passed against it, and I honor the Chief Justice who so nobly fought against torturing the poor beasts.

"Mr. Harris. You have my heartfelt sympathy Mrs. Busick. Like you, my sympathies were all with my cows. Oh! how sorry I felt when the first horn was taken off a cow on my farm, and I felt sorry, too, for the next one, but when they were turned loose, they seemed to pay no more attention to it than if the hair had been cut off from the end of their tails. I don't believe that the "nervous shock" amounts to any thing. As far as I am able to see, the animals are a great deal better without horns, and I shall dehorn every cow that comes into my possession. I do think it is better to take the horns off in the winter time, when the animal will not be annoyed by flies.

"Mrs. Busick. I can not believe that it makes better cows, and if you must dehorn a bull to quiet him, why just cut off his horns right back of his ears and be done with it. I want to record my sentiments against the practice of dehorning.

"President Plumb. I very much dislike to take sides against Mrs. Busick in this discussion, but I fear I must. About a year and a half ago, there was an extended controversy in Scotland, regarding the dehorning of cattle, and it was decided in the courts that it was cruelty to animals, but more recently the question has been again before the courts, and decided in favor on the testimony of competent veterinarians. I think the first bulletin published on the subject in this country, from the scientific standpoint was written by myself. The dehorning was supervised by a Veterinary surgeon, who was a graduate of an American Veterinary College, of very high standing. The animals were all examined and their temperature and pulse recorded before dehorning. The veterinarian not only stayed a while after the dehorning was completed, but made three or four visits afterwards. These animals were undergoing a feeding experiment at the time, and they were not disturbed in the least, and not one got off his feed. You must remember that this veterinarian was opposed to dehorning, but he was obliged to say that the animals were not suffering from any great pain, and there was no fever or high temperature consequence. At some of the experiment stations, experiments have been made to see if dehorning had any effect on the flow of milk. In all of the observations it was found that it made no perceptible difference.

"Mr. LaGrange. I have had some experience with cattle, and also with dehorning them. I had a Holstein bull and he came very near killing me, but luckily I escaped. I turned the matter over in my mind, and talked with three or four men on the subject, and at last I took his horns off, and after that there was not an old cow on the place that was as gentle as he was.

"Dr. Robinson. A neighbor of mine is in the habit of dehorning everything he owns in the shape of cows. He made some experiments on the effect of the dehorning on the flow of milk, and told me that never, in any instance has the supply decreased or increased from the effects of taking the horns off, even at the first milking after the operation. I am satisfied that it is the proper thing.

"Mr. Jenkins. I suggest that we adjourn, and let the remainder of the papers and the question box come in the evening session. "Mrs. Busick. I admire Mr. Harris's paper, and I hope he may come at last to take a humane view of the subject of dehorning.

"Mr. Harris. You know, Mrs. Busick, that I am in the dairy for money, and as long as I believe that there is money and no harm in dehorning cattle, I will cut them off. The only difference between us is, that I am a man and you are a woman.

"President Plumb. You will bear in mind that a cow 's horn is composed of bone, and pure bone has no feeling at all.

"Mrs. Busick. I would like to quote just one sentence from Pope*:

Vice is a monster of such hideous mien
That to be hated needs but to be seen,
But seen too oft, familiar with her face,
We first endure, then pity, then embrace.'

*From: Alexander Pope, 1688-1744. Essay on Man.

"President Plumb. That is a fine sentiment, Mrs. Busick." End of quote.

--A century ago, no other discussion in animal agriculture had such enthusiasm and fervor as the subject of dehorning. This is evidenced by the concluding paragraph in the chapter, "The Horns Must Go," by E.W. Hayter, 1968. The Troubled Farmer 1850-1900. Rural Adjustment to Industrialism. Northern Illinois University Press, DeKalb, Illinois.

"By the early 1890's the great debate over dehorning, which had engaged the rural mind for nearly a decade in both Canada and the United States, had ended. Great numbers of rural Americans gave a reluctant assent to the practice, for many retained a sentimental attachment to horned cattle and maintained to the last that the operation was cruel and painful. But in this case, as in so many others involving a clash between ideology and sentiment, on the other hand, and the demands of the new industrial order, on the other, the forces of technological change and the pressure of material interests gained the upper hand and finally created a consensus."

From the 2nd Annual Report (p. 29) we learn of early dogma of buttermaking "Through the gossip of calling neighbors, I learned of the trials to which butter makers were subjected by the want of (I may say the ignorance of) ice, thermometer, etc. Churning luck; swelled, foamy cream; scalding water; white, spongy butter, were discussed. One detailed her experience with "bewitched" cream. She finally triumphed by driving out the demon by thrusting in a red-hot horseshoe, taken from the white foot of a bald-faced, glass eyed sorrel mare. Thenceforth horse-shoes from the "fairy-free" animal were in demand. The encroachments of ambitious men upon this former domain of women have led to a more scientific dethronement of the "witch of the churn."

Professor Plumb noted the following in the (1893) 3rd Annual Report (p. 6-7).

"One day last Dec., I traveled 150 miles in a straight line over Indiana. The air was very cold, and filled with snow flakes, yet for 86 miles of the way, I saw hundreds of gaunt cows standing humped up in corn fields in that storm, nibbling at the standing corn stalks. That sight was a disgrace to our state, and a reflection upon the intelligence of the owners of the stock in question. In cold weather the animal heat is constantly spent in trying to counteract the effects of reduced air temperature surrounding the body. Experiments in feeding live stock have shown that animals sheltered in winter will produce greater returns, and eat less food than those exposed. This has been demonstrated in the case of both cattle and pigs. Dairy cattle are essentially nervous in constitution, and consequently they will suffer more from neglect than will phlegmatic beefy ones. We know that this condition of things exists, that milk cows are turned into the fields in severe winter weather, made to secure a part of their food from corn fields, and straw stacks, are given only icy water from running streams, and are in short roundly abused. How is the serious condition of affairs to be remedied? By a gradual process of education, covering many years. But some members of this Association can, I believe, assist in the work in this way: Let some yearly records of the work of certain dairy herds be kept, and published by the Association, not only in the Annual Dairy Report, but in some dairy circulars, to be distributed by thousands over the state, showing the number of animals kept, food fed, and its cost, the kind of summer and winter care given, yield in milk, butter or cheese, and the average income per cow. Very brief, comparatively inexpensive pamphlets of such character, would be widely read, and quoted, and would convey the lesson of the profits to be secured from the proper care of milk stock, that would be felt in building up an intelligent, and economical dairy industry.

"To go further, the rank of Indiana as a dairy state depends upon the class of cows we are milking. If our dairymen are studying their business, they will not keep beef stock for milk production, and yet many do. It is not the biggest animal nor the largest udder that produces the most milk. It is the dairy cow bred to make milk, the daughter of a dairy cow, out of a dairy cow, with the necessary inherent qualities of the class." Then Plumb proceeded to tell how to breed and develop dairy cattle.

Also in the 3rd Annual Report, Captain George Jackson discussed the stable care of dairy stock, pointing out the pitfalls of poor barn construction, ice water from the pond or frozen trough and the relic of barbarianism--the stanchion. He urged people to follow his lead of a tie stall (a light chain around the neck [neck-strap] secured to the side of the stall, or manger. On the matter of exercise, "the best place for cows in stormy or cold weather is in the stable, with the surroundings as comfortable as it is possible to make them. There they should remain as long as unfavorable outside conditions continue, if that should be the entire winter; when these let us, and it is "shirt sleeve" temperature outside, they can go out. The cows will then show by their actions which they prefer, and their choice should be respected and granted."

At the 4th Annual Meeting in Crown Point, Indiana, President Bartlett Woods of Crown Point welcomed the group:

"I welcome this meeting, because it will show the possibilities of the cow, when handled with kindness and liberally fed. Ignorance will turn the cow among the cornstalks to freeze, and feed her on short rations; Intelligence will stable her, and feed her for profit. This Association teaches the better way; it will show how the cow can be made warm and comfortable, paying back to its owner increased dividends, and how the lessons learned by practical men would, if practiced on our farms, double the income from the ten thousand cows owned in Lake county."

The 5th Annual Report listed "Things to be guarded by dairymen:

Don't fail to read the leading Dairy Literature.
Don't allow cows to have impure food or water.
Don't have a filthy stable.
Don't worry, excite or dog the cows.
Don't neglect cleaning or airing cows and stable.
Don't drive faster than a walk when delivering milk to cheese factory.
Don't neglect to aerate milk as soon as drawn from cows.
Don't draw whey home in milk cans.
Don't allow the pump to give the largest flow of milk.
Don't be eternally kicking on your tests.

There were also rules made for cheese makers and proprietors of factories.

At the 7th Annual meeting, things got political-- "We dairymen and farmers have talked about sanitary conditions, warm water, warm stables, plenty of sunshine in the stables, and a balanced ration for the cows, until I think most of the fellows that attend these meetings have got it down fine. And now I think we ought to give our law makers a little attention. I think if we would give them a right good balanced ration, they would give down almost any kind of milk we would ask them to.

"We have not been idle altogether. If it had not been for the State Dairy Association meetings, farmers' institutes, etc., we could not now call Bro. Mount, Governor. Nor could we hope to see our esteemed second Abraham Lincoln--W.D. Hoard, of Wisconsin,--a member of the cabinet, as Secretary of Agriculture, with President McKinley.

"To the citizens of Lebanon we feel grateful for providing us an appropriate place for our meeting. To the people of Boone County, for their generous support and attendance; for all this accept our thanks. I believe that this meeting here, and others we have had at other places in the State, have aroused an interest for profitable results, that are sufficient proof of the valued work and purpose of the State Dairy Association of Indiana." (Perhaps that is why $500 was allocated for many years by the State Legislature to publish the Annual Report.)

There was also a talk about "City Dairying" (meaning Indianapolis). J.J.W. Billingsley discussed milk quality, care of milk vessels, the bottle system, preservatives, feeding the cows, and the dairy barn. ("During the winter weather there are warm sunshiney days, let the cows out to take a sun bath and a little exercise, but keep them in warm quarters when there are cold winds").

The 8th Annual Meeting also featured Mr. Billingsley and his experiences with a stave silo (p. 19-28). C.S. Plumb interjected, "I have used silos personally myself ever since 1884. We have one at Purdue. I am a believer in the silo on the basis of practical experience, and I tell you, the sooner the farmers of Indiana that feed cattle, I don't care whether beef or dairy, add silos to their farm equipment, the more economically they can produce their milk or beef. At Purdue we have one or more expert practical feeders, and I have never yet had a man on the place who took up the matter of feeding silage, who came from a beef cattle farm, and who had never had experience with it before, but before he got through with it was an emphatic believer in it, both for beef and for dairy cattle."

8After reorganizing the Indiana State Dairy Association on a permanent basis, this man of foresight, vision, and courage, later served as Director of the Purdue Agricultural Experiment Station until 1902. Plumb left for the Ohio State University as a Professor and Chairman of the Department of Animal Husbandry from 1902 until 1920, when he retired. In his "Types and Breeds of Farm Animals," (1906) Professor Plumb assembled the first comprehensive textbook on breeds in which history and characteristics of all domestic breeds were reviewed in detail. This book was translated into many languages including Russian. At the 50th Anniversary of ISDA the early pioneers of the dairy industry were honored, especially Plumb, who had died in 1939. The banquet speaker, Dean H.H. Kildee, Iowa State University emphasized leadership and some of Professor Plumb's major contributions. In the 99th Annual Report (pages 13-14) reference is also made to his early work on sheltering milk cows, milking machines, and related areas.

9The Indiana pure food law was printed in the 1898 Annual Report. The National oleomargarine and filled cheese laws were printed in full in the 1897 Annual Report. (This was an act defining butter, also imposing a tax upon the manufacture, sale, importation and exportation of oleomargarine also known as oleo, oleomargarine oil, butterine, lardine, suine and neutral, and their mixtures; all lard extracts and tallow extracts, and all compounds of tallow, beef-fat, suet, lard, lard-oil, vegetable oil, annatto and other coloring matter, intestinal fat, and offal fat made in imitation or semblance of butter, or when so made calculated or intended to be sold as butter.)

10For the past 15 years, the greatest recorded yield for one lactation (365 days) of 55,661 lb. milk is still held by the Holstein Beecher Arlinda Ellen, bred and owned by Mr. and Mrs. Harold C. Beecher of Rochester, Indiana, in 1975. See Guinness Book of World Records, page 348. Bantam Books, N.Y. 1990.

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