Table of Contents
An Atlas of Reproductive Anatomy and PhysiologyforBreeding Barn Managers
To the reviewer:
Structure and Function of the Female Reproductive SystemWayne L. Singleton and Brad A. BelstraDepartment of Animal SciencesPurdue University
Why is a knowledge of the sow’s reproductive system important?
Top reproductive performance requires a combination of successes
Preparation for this presentationEach pan contains one uterine horn
Intact Gilt Reproductive Tract(Non pregnant)
Female Reproductive Tract
Endocrine Glands and Hormones
Pig ovary just prior to ovulation
Gilt reproductive tractDay 2 post estrus
Towards the end of the normal cycle, the corpora lutea become non functional terminating production of progesterone and become corpora albicans(white bodies). These “white bodies” are the remains of CL’s from the previous cycle.
Hormones and events just before and after estrus (heat)A single follicle and CL are shown
Major hormones of reproductionWhich hormone(s) would you expect to find in the blood of this gilt?
Pituitary GlandLocated at the base at the base of the brainIt is often called the master gland
These are corpora lutea which have been excised from an ovary
Ovarian StructuresNormal cycling, nonpregnant gilt
These are 8-celled zygotes about 48 hours after fertilization. They were flushed from the oviduct.
This is another view of the ovarian end of the tract.
Normal Ovary(left)Abnormal Ovary(right)
Describe what you see below
Cervix(Shown with catheter inserted)
Insemination Catheter PlacementNote: Cervical Folds
One of the most critical periods of embryonic development is between days 13 and 18 after conception. This when the attachment of the embryos called blastocysts occurs. Pregnant females should not be moved, mixed with new pen mates or in any way stressed at this time.
Development of Porcine Conceptuses from Day 10 to 12
Elongated Day 15 Porcine Conceptus
Prior to attachment to the uterine wall, the embryos can migrate from one uterine horn to another. They extend their membranes along the horn to achieve nearly equal spacing.
Real-time Ultrasound28 days post mating
Pregnant Uterine Horn(Trimmed of supporting ligaments)
28 Day Embryo
This “litter” of 12 embryos was removed from a sow on day 28 post-mating
This litter of 25 embryos was removed from 1 sow on day 28 post-mating.
Embryonic death and degeneration
Using Crown Rump Length to Determine Fetal Age
During gestation piglets orient themselves at random. About 1/2 are born head first and 1/2 are born tail first. Sometimes piglets will be born 1 or 2 from one horn and then 1 or 2 from the other or sometimes one horn is emptied and then the other. Again it is random. See the Purdue Porkpage for more information on farrowing. (we will put a link here)
This is a reproductive tract from a gilt. It is missing a vagina and cervix.
This is another abnormal reproductive tract from a gilt. What is missing?
Which gilt and which reproductive tract is abnormal?What is this condition called?
Have you observed this abnormality in new born gilts?What is missing?
What is abnormal about this animal?
Attainment of Puberty
Factors influencing the age at puberty
Induced or Programmed FarrowingUsing Lutalyse or Estrumate
Physiology and anatomy from farrowing through rebreeding
Assuming a normal farrowing process with no difficulties, the uterus should gradually return to its nonpregnant size within 10 or 12 days.
Why don’t all sows return to heat within 4 to 7 days after they are weaned?
Can you identify the structures and their function?