Purdue University 2000 Swine Day Report

Evaluation of Alternative Measures of Pork Carcass Composition

A.P. Schinckel, J.R. Wagner, J.C. Forrest, and M.E. Einstein
Department of Animal Sciences and Elanco Animal Health, Indianapolis

Introduction

Research has been conducted to evaluate effects of experimental treatments, to model pig growth, and to evaluate pork production systems (Schinckel and de Lange, 1996). Alternative endpoints include physical carcass dissection, fat-free or fat-standardized lean mass, mass of trimmed retail cuts, and empty body chemical composition. Carcass composition endpoints should be accurately and economically predicted from easily obtained carcass measurements. The prediction equations should be carefully evaluated for their ability to account for the differences due to genetic population, sex and weight. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the alternative methods of defining pork carcass composition and develop a further understanding of the interrelationships among various pork carcass and empty body composition endpoints.

Materials and Methods

Experimental Animals and Slaughter Procedures

Data from 203 pigs, representing seven genotypes and two sexes (gilts and barrows) were used (Hicks et al., 1998). The pigs were removed individually from the research trial at their predetermined target slaughter weight of 220, 251, 282, or 334 lbs. Pigs were weighed (on farm) and live animal B-mode ultrasound (Aloka Model 500V) measurements were taken for backfat depth, 2.8 in. off-midline, at the 10th rib (UBF) and last rib (UBFL). Ultrasonic measurements of the loin eye area were also taken at the 10th rib (ULEA). The pigs were transported to the Purdue University Meat Laboratory for slaughter and carcass dissection. At approximately 45 min after exsanguination, the right side of each carcass was probed 2.8 in. from midline with an optical probe (HGP4, Hennessy Grading Probe) between the third and fourth ribs anterior from the last rib.

The right sides were then placed in a 35 F chilling unit for 24 hours before carcass measurements were taken. Midline backfat thickness was measured at the last rib. Loin eye area and fat depth measurements (three-quarters of the length of the transverse section of the exposed longissimus muscle) were taken between the 10th and 11th ribs.

Determination of the Mass of Soft Tissue Components

Two methods were used to divide the carcass soft tissue into two measures of carcass composition. The first method is to partition the soft tissue mass into fat-free lean mass (FFLM) and total carcass fat tissue (TOFAT). The second method, based largely on chemical analysis, partitions the soft tissue into lipid-free soft tissue (LFSTIS) and soft tissue lipid (STLIP).

Fat-free lean mass (FFLM) is a measure of dissected carcass lean muscle after accounting for the predicted amount of fat tissue remaining in the dissected lean. To determine FFLM, the total fat tissue mass including connective tissue, water, and ash mass associated with adipose tissue must be taken into account. Calculation of FFLM of each of the five carcass components (four lean cuts and other soft tissue) was determined with the following equation:
FFLM = DL [1-(CL%/CLT%)], where DL was dissected lean or other soft tissue mass, CL% was the percentage of lipid in the dissected lean of the four lean cuts and other soft tissue, and CLT% was the percentage of lipid in the pooled dissected fat sample. Total carcass FFLM is the sum of the FFLM of each of the four lean cuts and other soft tissue. Total carcass fat (TOFAT) is the fat tissue contained within the carcass soft tissue. TOFAT is the sum of the dissected fat plus the predicted amount of undissected fat (CL%/CLT%) within each of the four lean cuts and other soft tissue.

Lipid-free soft tissue mass (LFSTIS) is the sum of the lipid-free mass of each of the six carcass components (dissected lean of the four primal cuts, other soft tissue, and pooled disssected fat sample). Carcass soft tissue lipid mass (STLIP) was calculated as the sum of the lipid mass of each of the six carcass components. Both sets of carcass composition variables sum to soft tissue mass. LFSTIS includes FFLM plus the lipid-free (water, protein and ash) mass associated with the carcass fat tissue, both within the dissected fat and dissected lean tissue.

Statistical Analysis

Least squares means were calculated with a model consisting of sex, weight group, genetic population, their interactions, and slaughter weight deviation (a covariate used to adjust each pig's slaughter weight to the actual mean of the target weight group). Regression equations for predicting the mass of the carcass composition endpoint measures were developed using the GLM procedure of SAS (1992). Independent variables were grouped according to the type of measurements used (i.e., midline ruler, optical probe, ribbed carcass, and live ultrasonic scanning). Accuracy of each prediction equation was evaluated by R2, which is the multiple coefficient of determination, and the residual standard deviation (RSD).

Least squares means of the residual values for the genetic population, sex, and target weight subclasses were evaluated as estimates of subpopulation biases (Gu et al., 1992). The correlation coefficients (CR) between the 14 predicted and observed genotype-sex means were used as measures of genotype bias. The proportion of variation among genotypes accounted for by each equation was determined by the variance ratio (VR), which is the variance of predicted genotype-sex means divided by the variance of observed means.

Weight group (P<.001), genetic population x weight group (P<.01), and sex x weight group (P<.05) biases were found to be significant. Thus, the data were analyzed as two separate data sets: a light weight data set (target weights of 220, 251, and 282 lbs) and a heavy weight data set (target weights of 251, 282, and 334 lbs).

Results

Acronyms and definitions for the variables are presented in Table 1. Table 1 also contains the overall and sex means for the light and heavy weight data sets. LFSTIS was 17.4 lbs greater than FFLM (98.3 vs. 80.9 lbs) in the light weight data set and 20.5 lbs greater (111.6 vs. 91.1 lbs) in the heavy weight data set. LFSTIS percentage was 9.5 units greater than FFLM percentage in both the light and heavy weight data. Overall, gilts had 7.9 lbs (9.7%) greater FFLM and 6.9 lbs (6.8%) greater LFSTIS than barrows. Also, gilts had less TOFAT, NLFAT, and STLIP than barrows.

Prediction equations for FFLM and LFSTIS are presented in Tables 2 and 3. Summary statistics describing biases associated with genetic population, sex and weight group are presented in Table 6. The highest RSD values were produced by a combination of carcass weight and midline last rib measurements (Equation 1). The equations based on ribbed carcass measurements (CW, LEA and FD10R; Equation 3) were slightly more accurate than the equations based on live weight and live-animal ultrasonic measurements (Equation 4).

Overall, equations predicting LFSTIS had higher R2 values and lower RSD values than equations predicting FFLM. The LFSTIS equations had RSD's averaging 4.6% of the mean LFSTIS. The RSD's of the FFLM prediction equations averaged 6.5% of the mean FFLM value.

For the same prediction equation and weight range of the data, the majority (7 of 8) of the LFSTIS equations had larger regression coefficients for CW or LW and smaller regression coefficients for the measures of backfat (the sum of the UBF and UBFL coefficients for Equation 4) than the FFLM equations.

All equations overestimated the FFLM and LFSTIS of the barrows and underestimated the lean content of the gilts. However, the magnitude of the sex biases were substantially smaller for Equations 3 and 4, which included loin eye area measurements (LEA or ULEA). Overall, the prediction equations ranked the genetic populations correctly for the three measures of carcass "lean" mass, as CR ranged from .88 to .97. However, Equation 1 had substantially smaller VR values (.32 to .43) than the other prediction equations (.72 to .96).

Prediction equations for TOFAT and TLIPID are presented in Tables 4 and 5. Equation 3 (ribbed carcass measurements) was most accurate followed by Equation 4 (live animal ultrasound and LW), Equation 2 (optical probe) and Equation 1 (CW and BFLR). Summary statistics describing biases associated with the prediction of TOFAT and STLIP are presented in Table 6. All equations overestimated the TOFAT and STLIP of the gilts and underestimated the barrows. In general, the prediction equations ranked the genetic populations properly (CR = .87 to .97). However, Equation 1 (VR = .38 to .59) and Equation 2 (VR = .72 to .80) predicted less variation for the genetic population-sex means than the actual variation in genetic population-sex means.

Discussion

The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the two alternative methods used to define pork carcass composition. The first method results in the carcass soft tissue being divided into two tissue fractions, fat-tissue-free lean and total carcass fat. Numerous researchers have adjusted dissected carcass lean mass to a fat-tissue-free basis (Fahey et al., 1977; Wagner et al., 1999). Other researchers, based on chemical analysis, have separated soft tissue into LFSTIS and STLIP. Essentially the measurements of lean mass account for either the fat tissue contained within the muscle tissue (FFLM) or the percent lipid within the soft tissue (both muscle and fat).

LFSTIS includes the FFLM and the mass of the non-lipid components (water, protein and ash) of the carcass fat tissue. The difference between TOFAT and STLIP is also NLFAT. NLFAT was affected by genetic population, sex, weight group, and genetic population by weight interactions. Because LFSTIS includes both FFLM and NLFAT, the absolute and percentage differences between FFLM and LFSTIS will differ for specific genetic populations, sexes and experimental treatments. Treatment, genotype or sex differences for FFLM will tend to have smaller actual and predicted differences for LFSTIS growth. For example, from 220 to 334 lbs live weight, gilts have a 12.9% greater FFLM gain than barrows (32.8 vs. 29.1 lb, Table 3) and 12.1% greater protein accretion (14.3 vs. 13.0 lb), but only a 4.4% greater LFSTIS gain (42.1 vs. 40.3 lb) than barrows. Thus, if the objective of an experiment is to specifically measure muscle growth or protein accretion, FFLM should be used.

FFLM gain has been extensively used to predict lysine requirements (Schinckel and
de Lange, 1996; NRC, 1998). Muscle tissue has high concentrations of lysine and other essential amino acids. Muscle growth accounts for approximately 70% of the total body lysine accretion. NLFAT gain contains approximately 11.7% crude protein and is low in lysine and other essential acids. For this reason, predicted daily lysine requirements are proportional to daily FFLM gain.

From a practical perspective, biases occur when different subpopulations - genetic populations, sexes, weight groups or treatments - have different values of the dependent variable (Y) at identical values of the independent variables (Gu et al., 1992; Wagner et al., 1993). Subpopulation differences in the distribution of lean and fat tissues and the chemical composition of the fat and lean tissues are partially responsible for subpopulation biases.

Implications

Fat-free lean mass is a more precise measurement of muscle mass and essential amino acid requirements than lipid-free soft tissue. Lipid-free soft tissue is a less expensive measurement of carcass composition than fat-free lean mass. Measures of carcass composition must be clearly and consistently defined.

References

Fahey, T.J., D.M. Schaefer, R.G. Kauffman, R.J. Epley, P.F. Gould, J.R. Romans, G.C. Smith, and D.G. Topel. 1977. A comparison of practical methods to estimate pork carcass composition. J. Anim. Sci. 44:8-17.

Gu, Y., A.P. Schinckel, T.G. Martin, J.C. Forrest, C.H. Kuei, and L.E. Watkins. 1992. Genotype and treatment biases in estimation of carcass lean of swine. J. Anim. Sci. 70:1708-1718.

Hicks, C., A.P. Schinckel, J.C. Forrest, J.T. Akridge, J.R. Wagner, and W. Chen. 1998. Biases associated with genotype and sex in prediction of fat-free lean mass and carcass value in hogs. J. Anim. Sci. 76:2221-2234.

NRC. 1998. Nutrient Requirements of Swine. Tenth Edition. National Academy Press. Washington, DC.

SAS. 1992. SAS User's Guide. SAS Inst. Inc., Cary, NC.

Schinckel, A.P., and C.F.M. de Lange. 1996. Characterization of growth parameters needed as inputs for pig growth models. J. Anim. Sci. 74:2021-2036.

Wagner, J.R., A.P. Schinckel, W. Chen, J.C. Forrest, and B.L. Coe. 1999. Analysis of body composition changes of swine during growth and development. J. Anim. Sci. 77:1442-1466.

Wagner, J.R., A.P. Schinckel, and J.C. Forrest. 1993. Genotype and sex biases in the estimation of pork carcass evaluation. NSIF Proceedings. St. Louis, MO.

 

Table 1. Overall barrow and gilt means for the light and heavy pig data sets.

 

 

220, 251, and 284 lb
weight groups

251, 284, and 334 lb
weight groups


Acronym

Definition of variable and
unit of measurement

Overall mean


Barrows


Gilts


SD

Overall mean


Barrows


Gilts


SD

LW

Live weight, lb

247.70

247.60

247.80

26.5

284.20

284.60

283.80

34.4

CW

Warm carcass weight, lb

185.01

187.20

185.70

22.5

214.62

214.83

214.4

27.8

FFLM

Fat-free lean mass, lb

80.93

77.00

84.75

12.1

90.10

86.42

95.46

13.4

TOFAT

Total carcass fat tissue mass, lb

65.05

73.34

64.97

15.2

84.81

90.79

78.93

20.5

LFSTIS

Lipid-free soft tissue mass, lb

98.34

94.82

101.70

12.3

111.55

107.87

115.17

15.0

STLIP

Carcass soft tissue lipid mass, lb

51.68

55.53

40.02

13.4

64.24

69.36

59.22

16.7

NLFAT

Non-lipid carcass fat tissue mass, lb

17.4

17.81

16.98

3.5

20.57

21.43

19.71

5.5

FFL %

Fat-free lean, %

43.87

41.94

45.70

4.6

42.60

40.44

44.73

5.2

TOFAT %

Total carcass fat, %

37.17

39.57

34.88

5.8

39.21

41.92

36.54

6.3

LFSTIS %

Lipid-free soft tissue, %

53.31

51.65

54.89

4.2

52.13

50.36

53.88

4.6

STLIP %

Soft tissue lipid, %

27.72

29.86

25.69

5.3

29.68

32.00

27.39

5.6

NLFAT %

Non-lipid fat, %

9.44

9.71

9.19

1.7

9.53

9.91

9.14

2.0

FD10R

Fat depth at 10th rib, in

1.23

1.36

1.10

.33

1.38

1.53

1.74

.38

BFLR

Midline backfat thickness at last rib, in.

1.14

1.20

1.09

.23

1.26

1.36

1.16

.26

LEA

Loin eye area at 10th rib, in.2

5.45

5.06

5.82

.90

5.94

5.56

6.31

1.0

FD34

3/4 last rib fat depth, in.

1.04

1.15

.93

.30

1.17

1.28

1.06

.33

MD34

3/4 last rib muscle depth, in.

1.92

1.84

1.99

.23

1.99

1.94

2.04

.26

ULEA

Ultrasonic 10th rib loin eye area, in.2

6.00

5.74

6.26

.85

6.64

6.35

6.89

.93

UBF

Ultrasonic backfat 10th rib, in.

1.34

1.48

1.20

.36

1.51

1.69

1.35

.39

UBFL

Ultrasonic fat depth at last rib, in.

1.09

1.21

.98

.28

1.21

1.35

1.08

.31

 

Table 2. Equations and regression analysis for predicting fat-free lean mass (lb) using measurements from various technologies.

 

 

220, 251, and 282 lb weight groupsb

251, 282, and 335 lb weight groupsb

Eq.

Variablea

n

R2

RSD, lb

b0

bi

Signifc

n

R2

RSD, lb

b0

bi

Signifc

1

CW

154

.68

6.86

21.4

.478

.001

153

.66

7.85

42.8

.410

.001

 

BFLR

 

 

 

 

-25.1

.001

 

 

 

 

-31.5

.001

 

2

CW

153

.84

4.78

8.02

.460

.001

152

.79

6.12

22.7

.385

.001

 

MD34

 

 

 

 

6.27

.001

 

 

 

 

8.12

.001

 

FD34

 

 

 

 

-23.07

.001

 

 

 

 

-25.93

.001

 

3

CW

154

.87

4.32

11.00

.434

.001

153

.84

5.40

25.2

.367

.001

 

LEA

 

 

 

 

2.39

.001

 

 

 

 

2.75

.001

 

FD10R

 

 

 

 

-18.93

.001

 

 

 

 

-21.10

.001

 

4

LW

142

.85

4.78

1.39

.324

.001

138

.83

5.69

24.4

.218

.001

 

UBF

 

 

 

 

3.58

.09

 

 

 

 

-4.00

.10

 

UBFL

 

 

 

 

-17.58

.001

 

 

 

 

-18.53

.001

 

ULEA

 

 

 

 

3.85

.001

 

 

 

 

4.91

.001

a CW = warm carcass weight (lb), BFLR = last rib midline backfat thickness (in), FD34 = optical probe off-midline fourth rib 3/4 fat depth (in), MD34 = optical probe fourth rib muscle depth (in), LEA = 10th rib loin eye area (in2), FD10R = off-midline 10th rib fat depth (in), LW = live weight, UBFL = ultrasonic backfat at last rib (in), ULEA = ultrasonic 10th rib loin eye area (in2), and UBF = ultrasonic backfat at the 10th rib (in).
b b0 = intercept, bi = partial regression coefficient of the ith independent variable, n = number of observations used in the model, R2 = coefficient of determination, and RSD = residual standard deviation.
c Signif = significance.

 

Table 3. Equations and regression analysis for predicting lipid-free soft tissue mass (lb) using measurements from various technologies.

 

 

220, 251, and 282 lb weight groupsb

251, 282, and 335 lb weight groupsb

Eq.

Variablea

n

R2

RSD, lb

b0

bi

Signifc

n

R2

RSD, lb

b0

bi

Signifc

1

CW

154

.79

5.88

26.8

.533

.001

153

.78

7.05

33.5

.524

.001

 

BFLR

 

 

 

 

-23.5

.001

 

 

 

 

-27.4

.001

 

2

CW

153

.89

4.12

13.0

.511

.001

152

.90

4.94

12.5

.498

.001

 

MD34

 

 

 

 

6.21

.001

 

 

 

 

9.63

.001

 

FD34

 

 

 

 

-20.1

.001

 

 

 

 

-22.9

.001

 

3

CW

154

.91

3.75

16.2

.481

.001

153

.92

4.30

18.1

.491

.001

 

LEA

 

 

 

 

2.36

.001

 

 

 

 

2.49

.001

 

FD10R

 

 

 

 

-16.1

.001

 

 

 

 

-19.4

.001

 

4

LW

142

.90

4.08

3.8

.385

.001

138

.91

4.70

15.5

.345

.001

 

UBF

 

 

 

 

-6.10

.01

 

 

 

 

-4.98

.05

 

UBFL

 

 

 

 

-11.9

.001

 

 

 

 

-16.4

.001

 

ULEA

 

 

 

 

3.34

.001

 

 

 

 

3.80

.001

a CW = warm carcass weight (lb), BFLR = last rib midline backfat thickness (in), FD34 = optical probe off-midline fourth rib 3/4 fat depth (in), MD34 = optical probe fourth rib muscle depth (in), LEA = 10th rib loin eye area (in2), FD10R = off-midline 10th rib fat depth (in), LW = live weight, UBFL = ultrasonic backfat at last rib (in), ULEA = ultrasonic 10th rib loin eye area (in2), and UBF = ultrasonic backfat at the 10th rib (in).
b b0 = intercept, bi = partial regression coefficient of the ith independent variable, n = number of observations used in the model, R2 = coefficient of determination, and RSD = residual standard deviation.
c Signif = significance.

 

Table 4. Equations and regression analysis for predicting total carcass fat mass (lb) using measurements from various technologies.

 

 

220, 251, and 282 lb weight groupsb

251, 282, and 335 lb weight groupsb

Eq.

Variablea

n

R2

RSD, lb

b0

bi

Signifc

n

R2

RSD, lb

b0

bi

Signifc

1

CW

154

.71

8.24

-33.9

.359

.001

153

.81

8.99

-56.8

.432

.001

 

BFLR

 

 

 

 

31.85

.001

 

 

 

 

38.86

.001

 

2

CW

153

.85

5.89

-21.4

.379

.001

152

.87

7.58

-35.2

.460

.001

 

MD34

 

 

 

 

-5.35

.02

 

 

 

 

-7.67

.004

 

FD34

 

 

 

 

25.14

.001

 

 

 

 

31.19

.001

 

3

CW

154

.89

5.20

-23.6

.395

.001

153

.89

6.86

-38.1

.467

.001

 

LEA

 

 

 

 

-2.13

.004

 

 

 

 

-2.35

.007

 

FD10R

 

 

 

 

25.14

.001

 

 

 

 

26.48

.001

 

4

LW

142

.87

5.36

-33.7

.327

.001

138

.88

7.05

-50.0

.425

.001

 

UBF

 

 

 

 

7.28

.02

 

 

 

 

8.90

.02

 

UBFL

 

 

 

 

27.8

.001

 

 

 

 

19.6

.001

 

ULEA

 

 

 

 

-1.96

.02

 

 

 

 

-3.46

.001

a CW = warm carcass weight (lb), BFLR = last rib midline backfat thickness (in), FD34 = optical probe off-midline fourth rib 3/4 fat depth (in), MD34 = optical probe fourth rib muscle depth (in), LEA = 10th rib loin eye area (in2), FD10R = off-midline 10th rib fat depth (in), LW = live weight, UBFL = ultrasonic backfat at last rib (in), ULEA = ultrasonic 10th rib loin eye area (in2), and UBF = ultrasonic backfat at the 10th rib (in).
b b0 = intercept, bi = partial regression coefficient of the ith independent variable, n = number of observations used in the model, R2 = coefficient of determination, and RSD = residual standard deviation.
c Signif = significance.

 

Table 5. Equations and regression for predicting soft tissue lipid mass (lb) using measurements from various technologies.

 

 

220, 251, and 282 lb weight groupsb

251, 282, and 335 lb weight groupsb

Eq.

Variablea

n

R2

RSD, lb

b0

bi

Signifc

n

R2

RSD, lb

b0

bi

Signifc

1

CW

154

.73

3.18

-39.5

.304

.001

153

.79

3.54

-21.6

.317

.001

 

BFLR

 

 

 

 

30.29

.001

 

 

 

 

6.20

.001

 

2

CW

153

.86

2.28

-26.4

.328

.001

152

.88

2.66

-25.1

.347

.001

 

MD34

 

 

 

 

-5.32

.001

 

 

 

 

-9.18

.001

 

FD34

 

 

 

 

26.43

.001

 

 

 

 

28.17

.001

 

3

CW

154

.89

2.02

-28.7

.348

.001

153

.91

2.35

-31.1

.343

.001

 

LEA

 

 

 

 

-2.11

.001

 

 

 

 

-2.09

.002

 

FD10R

 

 

 

 

22.29

.001

 

 

 

 

24.69

.001

 

4

LW

142

.88

2.03

-35.9

.265

.001

138

.90

2.38

-41.2

.299

.001

 

UBF

 

 

 

 

9.80

.001

 

 

 

 

9.86

.001

 

UBFL

 

 

 

 

13.38

.001

 

 

 

 

17.36

.001

 

ULEA

 

 

 

 

-1.45

.04

 

 

 

 

-2.35

.002

a CW = warm carcass weight (lb); BFLR = last rib midline backfat thickness (in); FD34 = optical probe off-midline fourth rib 3/4 fat depth (in); MD34 = optical probe fourth rib muscle depth (in); LEA = 10th rib loin eye area (in2); FD10R = off-midline 10th rib fat depth (in); LW = live weight; UBFL = ultrasonic backfat at last rib (in); LEA = ultrasonic 10th rib loin eye area (in2); and UBF = ultrasonic backfat at the 10th rib (in).
b b0 = intercept, bi = partial regression coefficient of the ith independent variable, n = number of observations used in the model, R2 = coefficient of determination, and RSD = residual standard deviation.
c Signif = significance.

 

Table 6. Evaluation of biases for genotype populations, sex, and weight group subpopulations in the prediction of the carcass component mass.

 

 

Light weight data sets
(220, 251, and 282 lbs)

Heavy weight data sets
(251, 282, and 334 lbs)



Eq.



Variablesa

Genetic population
Signif.


Sex
Signif.



CRb



VRb

Genetic population Signif.


Sex
Signif.



CRb



VRb


FFLM - Fat-free lean mass, lb

1

CW, BFLR

.01

.001

.88

.35

.001

.018

.89

.48

2

CW, FD34, MD34

.10

.11

.96

.92

.09

.013

.94

.72

3

CW, FD10R, LEA

.008

.53

.96

.93

.001

.40

.94

.79

4

LW, UBF, UBFL, ULEA

.001

.23

.88

.98

.001

.25

.90

.89


LFSTIS - lipid-free soft tissue mass, lb

1

CW, BFLR

.02

.001

.89

.39

.001

.04

.88

.49

2

CW, FD34, MD34

.64

.20

.96

.87

.55

.08

.97

.81

3

CW, FD10R, LEA

.20

.65

.97

.85

.40

.81

.97

.87

4

LW, UBF, UBFL, ULEA

.002

.37

.96

.97

.004

.81

.93

.96


TOFAT - Total carcass fat mass, lb

1

CW, BFLR

.02

.001

.38

.38

.32

.007

.94

.59

2

CW, FD34, MD34

.03

.03

.72

.72

.34

.001

.93

.78

3

CW, FD10R, LEA

.03

.21

.81

.81

.008

.06

.94

.84

4

LW, UBF, UBFL, ULEA

.004

.36

.82

.82

.001

.10

.93

1.00


STLIP - Soft tissue lipid mass, lb

1

CW, BFLR

.02

.001

.87

.43

.07

.01

.94

.58

2

CW, FD34, MD34

.10

.04

.97

.76

.53

.003

.96

.80

3

CW, FD10R, LEA

.22

.28

.98

.85

.21

.20

.97

.88

4

LW, UBF, UBFL, ULEA

.005

.49

.97

.86

.01

.39

.95

1.02

a CW = warm carcass weight (lb), BFLR = midline backfat thickness at last rib (in), FD34 = optical probe off-midline fourth rib 3/4 fat depth (in), MD34 = optical probe fourth rib muscle depth (in), LEA = 10th rib loin eye area (in2), FD10R = off-midline 10th rib fat depth, LW = live weight, ULEA = ultrasonic 10th rib loin eye area (in2), UBF = ultrasonic backfat at 10th rib (in), and UBFL = ultrasonic fat depth at last rib (in).
b CR and VR are the correlations and variance ratios, respectively, between the predicted and observed genetic population-sex means.


Index of 2000 Purdue Swine Day Articles